Trump's 25 percent tariffs on steel and 10 percent tariffs on aluminium bring the danger of a "trade war in which all countries concerned would be losers", Macron said according to a French presidential palace statement.
The measures "targeting allied countries who respect the rules of world trade, will not be effective in the fight against unfair practices", he insisted, adding that "Europe will respond in clearly and proportionately" against such moves.
French Economy Minister Bruno Le Maire on Thursday said that France would work out a response with other European countries and that all French steelmakers were expected to attend a meeting in Brussels on Monday.
Macron also welcomed the prospect of US-North Korea talks during the phone call, while urging Trump to be firm with Kim Jong-un.
"The international community must maintain its unity for tough talks with North Korea to pave the way for a denuclearisation of the Korean peninsula," he said, according to the statement.
Macron arrived in Delhi on Friday evening for a four-day visit.