Earthquakes this month caused 555 deaths on Lombok, an island in the Indonesian archipelago that sits on the Pacific Ring of Fire, where many earthquakes and volcanic eruptions take place.
The A400M arrived in Indonesia on 19 August along with several other French planes, the general staff in Paris said.
At the request of the Indonesian authorities, it transported 25 tonnes of building material and food, along with about 10 local rescue workers, to Lombok on Friday morning.
It will go on to join three Rafales, a Boeing A310 and a C135 on the Pégase 18 mission to take part in an international military exercise in Australia, before returning home via Asia.
It is due to arrive back in France on 4 September.