About 2,000 people - 800 according to police - broke through the cordon to reach reach the central 1 May Square which was named as the point of departure for the march.
There were more arrests at the protests, with others in Oran and Annaba in the east of the country.
Scuffles broke out and security forces arrested demonstrators early Saturday as pro-democracy campaigners assembled for a banned march calling for regime change.
They chanted slogans calling for the toppling of President Abdelaziz Bouteflika.
A solidarity demonstration has been organised in Paris on Saturday.