The preliminary investigation into fraudulent access to personal data was launched on 16 July, officials confirmed on Wednesday.
Documents leaked by American whistleblower Edward Snowden suggest US authorities in the National Security Agency and Federal Bureau of Investigation could access personal data all over the world, including France, via common online applications.
They hope the investigators shed more light on how the spying was able to happen, Jeanne Warnet, a lawyer for the International Federation of Human Rights in Paris, told RFI.
The complaint also targets the role played by Microsoft, Yahoo, Google, Paltak, Facebook, YouTube, Skype, AOL and Apple in the alleged espionage.
The companies could face criminal charges for violating data protection and privacy rules, if they are found to have collaborated with the alleged snooping.