The MMA – whose name means United Council of Action – is no more, according to one of the founding parties, Syed Munawar Hasan’s Jamaat-e-Islami, which refused to join when Jamaat Ulema-e-Islam (F) leader Fazal-ur-Rehman tried to revive it in 2012.
- Leader: Fazl-ur-Rahman
- Founders: Fazl-ur-Rahman, Sami ul-Haq, Qazi Hussain Ahmad
- Founded: 2002
- In power: North-West Frontier Province 2002-2008
The alliance had broken up in 2008 when JUI-F decided to take part in the election, breaking a boycott declared by the other parties.
The MMA was originally set up in 2002 and won control of North-West Frontier Province (now Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa) on a wave of Pashtun opposition to the US-led toppling of the Taliban government in Afghanistan.
But it lost the province to the secular, Pashtun-nationalist ANP and, thanks to the boycott, only JUI-F was represented in parliament.
Although the religious parties have never won a large number of votes in elections, Pakistan’s fractured party system and the authority of Islam allow them to punch above their weight – they were given a significant boost by the devout dictator General Zia ul-Haq and JUI-F was able to join the PPP-led government in 2008.
The alliance now consists of Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam-F (JUI-F), Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan (JUP), Tehrik-e-Jafaria Pakistan (TJP), Jamiat Ahle Hadith and other smaller groups.
TJP is the only Shia-Muslim party in the Sunni-dominated coalition.
The alliance is theocratic and socially conservative, opposes Pakistan's cooperation with the US-led war on terror and, while operating within the law itself, has criticised some state repression of armed Islamists.