The bill, which is in line with the 2015 Paris climate agreement, was approved without a vote.
The proposal outlines that France will cut its consumption of fossil fuels by 40 percent by 2030 and will shut down its remaining coal plants in 2022.
It also delays cutbacks to nuclear power by a decade.
New energy minister Elisabeth Borne, who is seeking to burnish her green credentials, said Thursday that despite "differences, there are also points we agree on, which allow us to have an interesting discussion."
Senators clashed notably on measures to make homes more energy efficient, however were able to agree on boosting hydroelectric power.
The text, which has undergone numerous changes, has already been adopted by the French parliament and is scheduled to be voted into law after summer.
The 2015 Paris deal saw nations commit to limit global temperature rises to "well below" two degrees Celsius and to a 1.5°C cap if possible.