Michel Hazanavicius took home best director accolades for the film, which pays tribute to Hollywood’s golden age before the arrival of “talkies.”
Actress Berenice Bejo, who played the starring female role in the film and is Hazanavicius’s partner, received the Cesar for best actress.
The film also picked up awards for best score, best set design and best cinematography.
The wins come two days before the Oscar film awards in Los Angeles, where The Artist is nominated for ten awards.
Jean Dujardin, who played the leading role in the film, will have to stake his chances on a win at the Oscars as he walked away from the Cesars emptyhanded.
The Artist has already received awards at the Golden Globes, the British Baftas and the Spanish Goyas.
Other winners at Friday's Cesars were Omar Sy as best actor, for his role in Intouchables, a story about a black man from the Paris projects who helps an upper class quadriplegic find a new lease on life.
Sy becomes the first black actor to receive a Cesar since the award ceremony began in 1976.
France’s cinema has seen a record year of ticket sales, with 215.6 million cinema tickets sold last year.