Doctor Mohammed Abyad was killed on Tuesday, according to MSF.
The organisation says it has little other information at the moment about the circumstances of the 28-year-old doctor’s death.
MSF issued a statement condemning “this aggression perpetrated against a surgeon who worked constantly to improve the terrible humanitarian situation” in the war-ravaged country.
The statement re asserted the importance of protecting humanitarian workers in such conditions.
MSF is active in six hospitals and four health centres in northern Syria, and its teams include both Syrian and international workers.
Between June 2012 and July 2013 MSF staff assured 66,000 medical consultations, 3,400 surgical operations and 1,400 births.