The man threw two firebombs at the Toulouse Espace de Judaïsme, which contains a synagogue, a radio station and a library, but they failed to ignite, according to local Jewish groups’ representative Nicole Yardeni.
He then threw stones at the centre’s security door before throwing another Molotov cocktail at some police patrolling in front of the building.
That firebomb did catch fire but didn’t reach the police and the man ran away, only to be caught shortly afterwards, according to police.
The attack took place an hour after a 500-strong Gaza solidarity demonstration in the city, although it is not clear whether the man had attended the protest.
Yardeni blamed a “poison in the minds of part of the population authorising them to harm Jews” which is “not because of Gaza, it goes far beyond that”.
In 2012 Mohamed Merah killed a rabbi and three schoolchildren outside a Toulouse Jewish school after murdering three French soldiers.