The 57-year-old teacher was attacked outside his home, close to the school and synagogue complex where he works, at about 8.00pm local time.
He was wearing a kippa and his attackers shouted anti-Semitic insults and showed him a T-shirt with IS's logo on it, local officials said.
They then stabbed him in the arms, legs and stomach, fleeing when police arrived in the vicinity.Although he was taken to hospital, his wounds were not life-threatening.
Last month a man attacked three Jews while shouting anti-Semitic insults, near the same synagogue.
Earlier on Wednesday a woman wearing hijab was attacked as she left a central Marseille metro station.
Her attacker, a man in his 20s, made remarks about her headscarf, accused of being a terrorist, she said, before punching her and hitting her with an object believed to be a boxcutter.
She was slightly injured in the chest.
French Interior Minister Bernard Cazeneuve expressed outrag at "these cowardly anti-Muslim and anti-Semitic attacks".
"Everything is being done to find and question those responsible for these unspeakable acts, who must face justice," he said.