CRS riot police stopped the unauthorised demonstration almost as soon as it began and had broken it up by 9.00am, officials said.
About 80 activists from the far-right group Génération Identitaire blocked two bridges, burnt tyres and let off teargas, police said.
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The organisation claimed there were 130 protesters and that they blocked three bridges that "gave migrants access to the town of Calais".
Photos and video posted on Twitter shown groups of young people sitting on the ground, some of them waving banners saying "Go Home" and "No Way", which they appeared to believe means "No entry".
Demonstrations by the Islamophobic organisation Pegida in Calais have been banned on the grounds of being a danger to public order.
On Friday five men appeared in court, accused of assaulting migrants while passing themselves off as police officers, the latest in several cases of attacks in the area.