The man, who lives on the French Riviera, claims that the transport network application's log-off function failed to work after he had requested a driver.
Since he had been foolish enough to use his his wife's phone, the app continued to send her updates of his travel history, arousing her suspicion that he was indulging in extra-marital activity.
The couple have since divorced.
The man, who wishes to "remain discreet" according to his lawyer, has refused to confirm Le Figaro newspaper's report that he is seeking 45 million euros in damages from the company.
"My client was the victim of a bug in an application," lawyer David-André Darmon told the AFP news agency after the case was lodged at a court in Grasse in south-east France. "There's a function to disconnect but the session was not disconnected and the bug has caused him problems in his private life."
Le Figaro claims to have encountered the same problem in tests on iPhones using IOS versions not updated before 15 December.
Uber has refused to comment on the case while it is going through the courts.
Social media and apps can seriously damage your marriage.
In 2010 Facebook was cited in one in five divorce cases in the US, according to the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers.