The campaign for a referendum to scrap the “Chinese Taipei” label before the 2020 Tokyo Olympics collected more than 520,000 signatures Monday, many more than the 280,000 required for a referendum to take place.
If vetted and approved by the Central Election Commission, the vote will be held to coincide with local elections on 24 November.
"I hope the international community will continue to care about Taiwan's situation so we can be treated fairly," said athlete Chi Cheng, Taiwan's first female Olympic medallist who co-led the campaign.
Since 1949 Taiwanese athletes have been allowed to compete in the Olympics but not use their own name, owing to a political compromise with China.
That compromise has come under pressure from the election of President Tsai Ying-wen.
"I hope all Taiwanese can come out [to vote] on 24 November to let Taiwan be Taiwan," added Huang Kuo-chang, chairman of the independence-leaning New Power Party, who supports the referendum.
The name-change campaign has already irked China, with Beijing's Taiwan Affairs Office previously warning that Taiwan would "swallow its own bitter fruit" and sacrifice its athletes' chances to compete in international games.
For the proposal to be accepted, a simple majority is insufficient if turnout is low.
At least 25 percent of Taiwan's 19 million eligible voters must vote yes, the results would then have to be ratified by parliament.